The relationship between immunotherapy and clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminant potential (CHIP) in patients with advanced melanoma

In 2014, scientists discovered a group of stem cells with genetic mutations in the bone marrow and blood, which is associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke, blood cancer, and the development of immature dysfunctional blood cells. This condition was termed Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminant potential (CHIP). CHIP appears to be an age-related phenomenon, which is rarely identified in younger people but can be seen in 30% of the population by age 85.

Brain Tumour Assembloids as Personalized Avatars for Glioblastoma Drug Discovery

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of brain cancer, killing the majority of patients within 12-15 months. Unfortunately, despite numerous clinical trials, life expectancy has only marginally increased over the past 50 years. Glioblastoma infiltrates surrounding brain tissue at early stages of disease making surgical management difficult. Traditional laboratory approaches designed to model cancer (ie.

Mutation analysis as a prognostic and predictive marker of cardiac disease in patients with myelodysplasia

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are cancers that can cause infection or bleeding because they prevent the formation of blood components, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. MDS can also cause leukemia which can lead to a patient’s death. MDS can be caused by changes (or mutations) to a patient’s DNA. There have not been any studies to see if these mutations cause an increased risk of heart disease in MDS patients, although it is known that MDS patients do have an increased risk of heart disease compared to healthy adults.

Methylome biomarker discovery and circulating tumor cell-derived xenografts by liquid biopsy in small cell lung cancer

Lung cancer is the most common cancer killer worldwide. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an extremely aggressive type of lung cancer that represents about 1 in 7 of all lung cancer cases. SCLC patients live on average about 8-12 months and only 7 in 100 patients survive to 5 years. Two chemotherapy drugs are given to essentially all patients and are called cisplatin and etoposide. They have been proven to extend life for patients because the cancer is initially very sensitive and shrinks when treated by these two drugs.

Laying the groundwork for a simple microRNA-based blood test to diagnose and monitor all neuroendocrine tumors

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are clinically diverse neoplasms that affect males and females of all ages and race. Because NETs are hard to diagnose and resource intensive to monitor, better blood tests are needed to guide clinical care. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA regulatory molecules that can be excellent biomarkers due to their tissue specificity. While generating an updated atlas of human miRNA expression atlas, my team and I found that miR-375 is abundantly expressed in all NET tissues.

Evaluating gene expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using a quantitative nuclease protection assay

Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are a commonly diagnosed and diverse group of aggressive malignancies that have distinct clinical and molecular features that do not always correlate with their appearance under the microscope.

Deep Learning for Lung Cancer Diagnostics and Biomarker Discovery

Artificial intelligence (AI) research has advanced significantly in recent years, and has given rise to algorithms which are adept at analyzing image data. The application of this technology within pathology is an area of major interest, since these algorithms may be able to help pathologists diagnose cancer with increased accuracy, consistency, and efficiency. Past research has shown that there is considerable variability between the diagnoses of individual pathologists, and the use of diagnostic software promises to bring an added element of objectivity to the diagnostic process.

Using liposarcoma tissue microarrays to characterize the immune environment and identify novel immunotherapy targets for treatment of liposarcoma

Liposarcoma, a malignant cancer arising from fat cells, only responds to chemotherapy 24% of the time and treatment options have not changed in many years. Our long-term goal is to create an immunotherapy treatment that leverages the patient’s own immune system to recognize and destroy the malignant cells. The first vital step in this process is to identify proteins (antigens) for the immune system to target that are unique to the sarcoma cells and not present in the normal cells of the body.

Tumor-First Testing for Hereditary Hematological Malignancies Syndromes

Blood cancers can be acquired (in the tumoral blood tissue only) or inherited (present in any cells). DNA mutations can be identified in the blood of any individuals with blood cancer. 11-37% of patients with acquired blood cancers also bear the same mutations in any cells of their body including their gonads; these mutations can therefore be transmitted to their offspring and predispose them to familial blood cancers. In addition, patients with blood cancers may receive transplants from related family members (e.g. siblings, parents).

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